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_w`nmZ    ghH$mar gWm      em{UH$    B-_oc     ghH$mar H$m`Xo     ghH$ma  gm{h`    ghH$ma {dmghm`    BVa gWm     g d XeZ
   
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ghH$maMr nwZa{MV Vdo


OJm_`o 1937 ZVa PnmQ>`mZo n[a[WVr ~XcV Jocr  Xwg`m _hm`wXmZVa  ~`mM XoemV gm_mOrH$ d amOH$s` [WVrV ~Xc Pmcm. Aem n[apWVrV ghH$mar Midircm OwidyZ `mdo cmJco  ~Xc`m VmrH$ d `dWmnH$s` ~XcmnmgwZ ghH$mar MidirZo V:Vmcm Xya R>odZo eŠ` ZhVo. AmYwZrH$ V̵kmZmZo CncY H$Z {Xco`m gYrMm \$m`Xm ghH$mar `mdgm`rH$ gKQ>ZmZr KoUo `mMo AVrd {Q>H${d`mgmR>r d {dH$mgmgmR>r Amd`H$ hmoVo   AmVam>—>r` ghH$mar gKQ>ZoZo dJuHV H$Z {Xcocr ghH$maMr gmV Vdo H$mhr _mUmV AdmV{dH$ Am{U$ doJmZo ~Xc`m H$mimV OwZr dmQ>y> cmJcr. H$mhr XoemV `om H$m_H$mO H$aVmZm `m VdmMm dmna H$a`mV `oV ZhVm {deofV ghH$mar eoVH$s nV nwadR>m gWmV `moOZoMr H$mQ>oH$moanUo A_c~OmdZr H$a`mV Z Am`mZo H$mhr Vdo nyUV dJicr Jocr VgoM ~Xc`m n[apWVrV `m VdmMr nwZaMZm H$a`mMr AmdH$Vm ^mgy cmJcr .

AmŠQ>mo~a 1964 _`o AmVam>—>r` ghH$mar gKQ>ZoZo ghH$mar VdmMr nwZaMZm H$a`mgmR>r EH$ g[_Vr Zo_cr. `m g{_{V_`o ^maV, BcS, A_o[aH$m, O_Zr, a{e`m, `m XoemMo {V{ZYr homVo. ^maVmVrc gw{gX ghH$mar H$m`H$Vo mo.S>r.Or. H$do} ho `m g{_VrMo A`m hmoVo. ~Xc`m Am{WH$, gm_mOrH$ d amOH$s` n[apWVrV ameS>ocMr Vdo ghH$mar Midircm Cn`wŠ$ R>aVmV {H$dm ZmhrV, VgoM `mnH$s H$moU`m VdmMr nZaMZm H$aUo Amd`H$ Amho H$s , OoZo H$Z Vr Vdo ghH$mar Midir`m {d{dY emIoVrc C[>`o d H$m` MmJ`mH$mao  >H$a`mgmR>r gm^yV R> eH$Vrc. `m g{_VrZo gwM{dcocr aMZm \$Š$ gwM Agw Z`oV Iao ghH$mar Vd ho AWnyU Agmdo `mMo n[hco H$maU hUOo `m VdmZo ghH$mar H$m`H$`mZm gm_` C[>o V nmohM{d`mMm _mJ XmI{dcm nm{hOo H$maU Ago H$s , `m VdmZo `mMo H$m`mo d n[aUm_ n>nUo Xe{dco Agco  nm[hOo .

g{_VrZo `m gd ~m~tMm g{dVa  {dMma  H$Z Imcrc_mUo ghH$maMr ghm nwZa{MV Vdo _m` H$ocr 

1) Iwco d Eo{N>H$ g^mgXd

  2) cmoH$emhr {Z`U

3) ^mS>dcXma _`mXrV `mO

  4) dmT>m`mMr `m` dmQ>Ur 

5) ghH$mar {emU

  6) ghH$mar gWm AVJV ghH$ma 

darc VdmMo WmoS>Š`mV n>rH$aU nwT>rc_mUo Amho.

1)Iwco d Eo[N>H$ g^mgXdo

g_mZ JaOm AgUm`m d g^mgX hmo`mg nm AgUm`m `ŠVrZm ghH$mar gWoMo g^mgd Iwco AgVo g^mgX hmoVmZm OmV , Y_ , r, nwf, Cƒ {ZM J[a~ lr_V Agm ^oX^md H$ocm OmV Zmhr gWo`m godoMm gd g^mgXmZm gmaImM Cn`moJ H$Z KoVm `oVmo g^mgX hmo`mgmR>r gŠVr H$ocr OmV Zmhr. Vmo doN>oZo g^mgX hmoC eH$Vmo Vgo Amnco g^mgd ahr H$ eH$Vmo .

`m Vdmcm H$mhr AndmX Agy eH$VmV ghH$ma  {df`H$ {_Ym g{_Vr`m _Vo JmhH$ ghH$mar gWoV  gWo`m Odinmg amhUm`m `ŠVrZmM gWoMo g^mgX H$aUo `mo` R>aoc lr . Xw^mfr `m`m _Vo Mm[ahrZ d gWo`m {hVg~YmZm ~mYm AmUUm`m gWoMo g^mgX H$aUo `mo` R>aUma Zmhr _hmam>— ghH$mar H$m`Xm A{Y{Z`_> 1960 H$c_ 22 Ad`o gWm H$arV Agcocm `dgm` H$aUm`m `m gWo`m g^mgd gŠ$sMo H$oco OmC eH$Vo Oc{gMZ, {nH$, gamU, ghH$mar gWm WmnZ H$aVmZm `mMo mo gWo`m H$m`momV `oVo d Vo Oa gWoMo g^mgX hmo`mg CgwH$ ZgVrc Va `mZm g$Š$sZo ghH$mar gWoMo g^mgX H$a`mV `oC eH$Vo .

2)cmoH$emhr {Z`U

cmoH$emhr hr amOH$s` d Am{WH$ Agy eH$Vo. ghH$mar gWoVrc cmoH$emhr hr A{WH  dnmMr cmoH$emhr Amho. ghH$mar gWoV `oH$ g^mgXmcm E_ _V Xo`mMm A[YH$ma AgVmo. _V XoVmZm `mZo YmaU H$oco`m$ ^mJmMm {dMma  H$ocm OmV Zmhr  gWoMo gd g^mgX {_iyZ gWoMo gmYmaU g^m ~ZVo `m gmYmaU g^ocm gdƒ A{YH$ma  AgVmV Vr gmdo}^m_ AgVo. hr gmYmaU g^m gWoMo YmoaU R>a{dVo gWo`m nmoQ>{Z`_mZwgma dm{fH$ {heo~mMr nH$o$ _Oya H$aUo, {heo~ VnmgUo, Xmof, XwVr Ahdmcmg _m`Vm XoUo gWo`m `o` YmoaUmMr A_c~OmdUr H$a`mgmR>r `dWmnH$ g{_Vr {H$dm gMmcH$ _S>i `mMr {ZdS> H$aUo B`mXr H$m_o gmYmaU g^ocm H$amdr cmJVmV cmoH$emhr nXVrZo gmYmaU g^oV ~h_VmZo {ZU` KoVco OmVmV.

gmYmaU g^oZo R>adyZ {Xcoco `o` YmoaU, KoVcoco {ZU` `mMr A_c ~OmdUr `dWmnH$ g{_Vr $qH$dm gMmcH$ _S>i H$aVo   `dWmnH  g{_Vr$ g^oV ~hw_VmZo {ZU` KoVco OmVmV   ghH$mar gWmZr doJdoJi`m Vamda  Amn`m gKr` gWm H$m` H$aVmV mW{_H$ gWmZr {ZdS>y>Z {Xcoco {V{ZYr am` nmVirda gWmMo H$m_H$mOmV ^mJ KoVmV . Aem gKr` gWmVrc  cmoH$emhr hr A`m H$mMr cmoH$emhr hmo` .

3)^mS>dcXma _`mXrV `mO

ghH$mar gKQ>ZoV ^mS>dcmg A{YH  _hd${Xco OmV Zmhr ^mS>dcmnomm `H$Vrcm A{YH$ _hd {Xco OmVo. H$moU`mhr `dgm`mcm ^mS>dcmMr AmdH$Vm AgVoo. ^mS>dc `dgm`mMm _yc^yV KQ>H$ Amho . `dgm`mV ^mS>dcmMm dmna hmoV Ag`mZo `m dmnamMm `mOmMm dnm _`mXrV _mo~Xcm XooUo Amd`H$ R>aVo ghH$mar gWoV EH$m `Š$sZo KmaU H$amd`m`m ^mJ ^mS>dcmda  _`mXm Amho

mo. S>r.Or.H$do} `m`m _Vo, ghH$mar gWoZo g^mgX , {~Ja  g^mgX, `m`mH$S>y>Z {d{dY dnmV ^mS>dc Jmoim H$o`mg  d `mda  `mo` `mO {X`mg `m_wio ghH$mar _w`mMm `mJ H$ocm Ago hmoUma Zmhr .

ghH$mar gWm`m ^mJm`m (eoAg) {H$_VrV MT> CVma hmoV ZmhrV. ghH$mar gWm`m eoAggmR>r H$moUVohr eoAggmR>r H$moUVohr eoAg _mHo} Q>  CncY Zmhr. ^mS>dcXma H$mhr _`mXrV _mUmV _mo~Xcm XoUo `m VdmZo _m` H$oco Zmhr .

4) dmT>m`mMr `m` dmQ>Ur

ghH$mar gKQ>ZoMm Coe Z\$m {_i{dUo hm ZgVmo Va g^mgXmZm OmVrV OmV godm nwa{dUo hm AgVmo. `m_wio Am{WH$ CcmT>mcr ZVa {e„H$ amhVmo, Vmo Z\$m ZgyZ dmT>mdm AgVmo. ^mS>dcXma _`mXrV `mO {X`mZVa Omo dmT>mdm {e„H$ amhrc `mMr `m` dmQ>Ur H$aUo AnomrV AgVo. doJdoJi`m ghH$mar gKQ>ZoV doJdoJi`m H$mao  dmQ>Ur H$aVm `oVo JmhH$   ghH$mar gWoV JmhH$mZo `m gWoH$S>y>Z H$oco`m IaoXr`m _mUmV , ghH$mar nV nwadR>m gWoV g^mgXmUo gWoH$S>y>Z KoVco`m H$Om`m _mUmV , ghH$mar IaoXr {dH$s gWoV g^mgXmZr gWocm {dH$co`m _mcm`m _mUmV gXa dmT>m`mMr dmQ>Ur H$a`mV `oVo .

5)ghH$mar {emU

OmUH$ma ZoVd d H$m`m_ hr ghH$mar aWmMr XmoZ MmH$o$ AmhoV. gWo`m g^mgXmVwZ gWo`m g^mgXmVyZ gWo`m `dWmnH$ g{_VrMr {ZdS> hmoVo gWoMo H$m_H$mO `d[WVnUo Mmc`mgmR>r g^mgX, `dWmnH$ g{_Vr gX`o nXm{YH$mar `mZm ghH$mar Vdo `dgm`mMo dn B`mXr~m~V {emU XoUo Amd`H$ AgVo. VgoM `m H$m_H$mO H$a`mgmR>r godH$mZm {emUmMr JaO AgVo ghH$mar MidirMo Am dVH  ameS>oc gWmnH$ `mZrhr g^mgX {emUmgmR>r R>amdrH$ aH$_oMr VaVyX H$ocr hmoVr.

AmVam>—>r` ghH$mar gKQ>Zo`m _Vo ghH$mar Midi {emU {emUmMr {H$`m Amho  `m_wio ghH$mar MidirV gh^mJr hmo`mgmR>r ghH$mar {emU Amd`H$ Amho  EH$m VkmZo Ago _V _mS>co Amho H$s OmV ^mS>dc d A{e{mV g^mgX Am{U$ H$_r ^mS>dc d {emrV g^mgX Aem XmoZ gWmnH$s _r H$_r ^mS>dc d {e{mV g^mmgX gWm `mMr {ZdS  H$arZ .

6)ghH$mamVJV ghH$ma

AmYwZrH$ OJ nYo}Mo OJ Amho. EH$mH$s ghH$mar gWm nYo}V> {Q>H$y$ eH$V Zmhr mW_rH$ nmVirn`Vm ghH$mar gWmZr  Amncr gKr` aMZm H$ococr Amho. gd H$ma`m ghH$mar gWmZr H$m_ H$o`mg nYo}cm Vmo|S> XoUo eŠ` hmoBc V`m_wio g^mgX d g_mOmMr MmJ`mH$mao godm H$aVm `oBc  nanamVrc ghH$mam_wio EoŠ`m`m ^mdZoV dmT> hmoBc. gWm {_iyZ H$m` H$oco nmhrOo. ghH$mar nV nwadR>m d ghH$mar IaoXr {dH$s gWm gWm {_iyZ H m` H$oco nmhrOo ghH$mar nV nwadR>m d ghH$mar IaoXr {d{H$ gWm `m`mVrc ghH$mam_wio g^mgXm`m _mcmcm `mo`$^md {_iyZ g^mgXmcm {Xco`m H$OmMr dgycr Pm`mZo nwT>o nVnwadR>m H$a`mgmR>r ^mS>dc CncY hmoC eHo$c  


_w`nmZ    ghH$mar gWm      em{UH$    B-_oc     ghH$mar H$m`Xo     ghH$ma  gm{h`    ghH$ma {dmghm`    BVa gWm     g d XeZ

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